【目的】研究三峡库区普里河浮游生物群落结构、生物多样性及鱼类资源现状，为普里河流域生态环境的监测和治理提供数据支撑。【方法】于2019年3—4月在普里河设置8个采样断面，开展浮游生物群落结构及鱼类资源现状调查与分析，并运用Shannon Wiener多样性指数(H′)、Pielou指数(J)及Marglef指数(D)评价浮游生物的生物多样性，由此综合评价水质受污染程度。【结果】在普里河共采集到浮游植物6门44属92种，以硅藻门(Bacillariophyta)为主，硅藻门物种数占浮游植物总物种数的60.87%；浮游植物的密度和生物量平均值分别为4.0×104 个·L-1、0.061 9 mg·L-1；浮游植物H′、J和D的平均值分别为2.244 0、0.896 8和2.961 7。普里河的浮游动物共4门21属28种，以轮虫类(Rotifera)为主，轮虫类物种数占浮游动物总物种数的53.57%；浮游动物的密度与生物量平均值分别为246 个·L-1、3.684 7 mg·L-1；浮游动物H′、J和D的平均值分别为1.370 4、0.889 5和1.326 7。普里河的鱼类共3目5科24种，以鲤科(Cyprinidae)为主，鲤科物种数占全部鱼类物种数的62.5%。【结论】普里河流域整体水质污染程度为清洁至中度污染，鱼类资源与历史调查纪录相比有明显减少。普里河流域水生态治理与渔业资源保护管理工作需要重视和加强。
［Purposes］ It aims to investigate the plankton community structure, biodiversity, and fish resources in the Puli River Basin of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and provide data support for the monitoring and management of the ecological environment in the Puli River Basin. ［Methods］ From March to April 2019, eight sampling sections were set up in the Puli River to conduct investigations and analyses on the plankton community structure and fish resources. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′), Pielou index (J), and Marglef index (D) were used to evaluate the biodiversity of plankton and comprehensively assess the degree of water pollution. ［Findings］ A total of 92 species belonging to 44 genera and six phyla of phytoplanktons were collected in the Puli River, dominated by the Bacillariophyta phylum, which accounted for 60.87% of the total species. The average density and biomass of phytoplanktons were 4.0×104 individuals·L -1 and 0.061 9 mg·L -1, respectively. The average values of H′, J, and D for phytoplanktons were 2.244 0, 0.896 8, and 2.961 7, respectively. A total of 28 species belonging to 21 genera and four phyla of zooplanktons were collected, dominated by the Rotifera phylum, which accounted for 53.57% of the total species. The average density and biomass of zooplanktons were 246 individuals·L -1 and 3.684 7 mg·L -1, respectively. The average values of H′, J, and D for zooplanktons were 1.370 4, 0.889 5, and 1.326 7, respectively. A total of 24 species belonging to five families and three orders of fish were identified in the Puli River, dominated by the Cyprinidae family, which accounted for 62.5% of the total species. ［Conclusions］ The overall water quality of the Puli River Basin ranged from clean to moderately polluted, and the fish resources were significantly reduced compared to historical survey records. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the water ecological management and fishery resource protection in the Puli River Basin.