【目的】探究困境儿童社会适应现状及影响机制，为困境儿童心理帮扶及救助提供依据。【方法】采用少年儿童社会适应量表、青少年发展与心理弹性问卷和一般自我效能感量表对重庆市252名困境儿童进行施测，探究三者之间的关系，并分析内在作用机制。【结果】1) 困境儿童社会适应量表各维度在性别、是否住校、是否家庭和睦上具有统计学意义上的差异(p<0.05)；2) 少年儿童社会适应量表、青少年发展与心理弹性问卷和一般自我效能感量表两两间具有统计学意义上的差异(p<0.01)；3) 一般自我效能感具有统计学意义上的正向预测社会适应(B=0.392，p<0.001)与心理韧性(B=0.505，p<0.001)，心理韧性具有统计学意义上的正向预测社会适应(B=0.661，p<0.001)，心理韧性在自我效能感影响社会适应的过程中起中介作用，中介效应比为33.935%。【结论】自我效能感不仅直接影响社会适应，还可通过心理韧性间接影响社会适应，可通过提升自我效能高感与心理韧性来提升困境儿童社会适应水平。为社会关注困境儿童，促进他们健康发展提供依据和实证参考。
［Purposes］To explore the current situation and influencing mechanism of social integration of vulnerable children, and to provide a basis for psychological assistance and assistance for vulnerable children. ［Methods］The Social Adaptation Scale for Children and Adolescents (SASCA), the Resilience Youth Development and Metal Health (RYDM) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale Schwarzer (GSES) were used to measure 252 vulnerable children in Chongqing to explore the relationship between this questionnaire and analyze their internal mechanisms. ［Results］1) There were significant differences in gender, whether they lived in school, and whether they were harmonious in the SASCA (p<0.05). 2) SASCA, RYDM, and GSES are significantly positively correlated with each other (p<0.01). 3) The general self-efficacy significantly positively predicted social adaptation (B=0.392, p<0.001) and psychological resilience (B=0.505,p<0.001), psychological resilience significantly positively predicted social adaptation (B=0.661, p<0.001), and psychological resilience played an intermediary role in the process of self-efficacy influencing social adaptation, and the mediating effect ratio was 33.935%. ［Conclusions］Self-efficacy not only directly affects social adaptation, but also indirectly affects social adaptation through mental toughness. By improving self-efficacy and psychological resilience, the social adaptation level of vulnerable children can be improved, and it can provide a basis and empirical reference for the society to pay attention to vulnerable children and promote their healthy development.